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This study examined the accuracy of a Lagrangian scheme for simulating both the motion and wall impaction of neutrally buoyant inertial spheres (8.85 St 18.04) moving in the subcritical regime (Re ¼ 10,972 and 22,366) of flows past a circular cylinder. The accuracy of the eddyresolving simulations of the flow field was verified based on available data at nearly comparable flow conditions. The accuracy of the particle tracking scheme was verified with respect to corresponding experimental data in a laboratory flume.

The work presented in this report was performed under the HydroPASSAGE project (www.hydropassage.org) and includes validation and model confirmation for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-Biological Performance Assessment (BioPA) modeling tools. The BioPA toolset developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is used in combination with CFD simulations to predict the relative risk of injury and mortality that fish may experience during hydropower turbine passage.

Rapid pressure changes in hydroelectric turbine flows can cause barotrauma that can be hazardous to the passage of fish, in particular migratory juvenile salmonids. Although numerous laboratory tests have evaluated the effect of rapid decompression in fish species of relevance, numerical modeling studies offer the advantage of predicting, for new turbine designs, the potential risks of mortality and injury from rapid pressure change during turbine passage.

Standards provide recommendations for best practice when installing current meters to measure fluid flow in closed conduits. A central guideline requires the velocity distribution to be regular and the flow steady. Because of the nature of the short converging intakes typical of low-head hydroturbines, these assumptions may be invalid if current meters are intended to be used to estimate discharge. Usual concerns are (1) the effects of the number of devices, (2) the sampling location and (3) the high turbulence caused by the presence of fish diversion screens.

Studies of the stress/survival of migratory fish during downstream passage through operating hydro-turbines are normally conducted to determine the fish-friendliness of the hydro-turbine units. This study applies a modelling strategy based on flow simulations using computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle tracking to represent the travel of live fish and autonomous sensor devices through hydro-turbine intakes. For the flow field calculation, the simulations were conducted using a Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes turbulence model and an eddy-resolving technique.

In this work, we combined the use of (i) overset meshes, (ii) a 6 degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) motion solver, and (iii) an eddy-resolving flow simulation approach to resolve the drag and secondary movement of large-sized cylinders settling in a quiescent fluid at moderate terminal Reynolds numbers (1500<Re<28,000). These three strategies were implemented in a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions to describe the fluid-structure interactions and the resulting effects on the cylinder motion.

We introduce a method for hydro turbine biological performance assessment (BioPA) to bridge the gap between field and laboratory studies on fish injury and turbine engineering design. Using this method, a suite of biological performance indicators is computed based on simulated data from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a proposed hydro turbine design. Each performance indicator is a measure of the probability of exposure to a certain dose of an injury mechanism.