Below are a list of key terms and definitions related to the HydroPASSAGE project.

A | B | C | E | F | H | K | O | P | R | S | T | W

Operational and engineering modifications to dams that improve the survival rate of fish as they travel through hydropower structures. This includes juvenile bypass systems, fish screens, and changes in flows to reduce exposure to elevated total dissolved gas.

A structure, on or around a dam or other artificial barrier, that facilitates upstream passage of fish. 

A fish can encounter shear stresses when it passes through the interface of two water masses that are moving at different velocities or directions. This can result in injury and/or mortality for fish passing through the turbine environment.

A specific type of of hydropower turbine. Designed based on water-wheels, modern Francis turbines can be operated in a variety of head and flow environments. In general, Francis turbines have more blades than Kaplan turbines, and water enters the turbnie perpendicular to the rotational axis of the turbine.