fluidshearphoto

Fluid Shear

 


 

Image

 

As fish travel through a hydropower turbine they can also experience fluid shear, which caused by forces that occur at the interface of two water masses moving at different velocities or directions. Exposure to shear forces can lead to physical damage to the body tissues of fish, including injuries to the operculum, eyes, and loss of equilibrium. In the above photograph, researchers expose fish to shear forces using a fiberglass flume and a submerged jet of water. This apparatus researchers to expose fish to shear forces similar to those which they would experience during hydropower turbine passage, in order to develop a biological response relationship. 

Shear studies are conducted in a fiberglass flume, in which fish are exposed to a submerged jet of water. The jet velocity can reach 70 ft/s, resulting in a strain rate of 1000/s. Currently, the biological response (effects) of shear are known for 9 species of fish including juvenile Chinook salmon, juvenile American shad, and juvenile steelhead. 

Species

 Data

Citation

American eel

(Anguilla rostrata

●●● Article in progress (data available in BioPA/HBET)

American shad

(Alosa sapidissima)

●●●

Neitzel et al. 2000, 2004; Article in progress (data available in BioPA/HBET)

Blue gourami

(Trichogaster trichopterus)

●●

Colotelo et al. 2018

Bluegill

(Lepomis macrochirus)

●●●

Article in progress (data available in BioPA/HBET)

Chinook salmon

(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

●●●

Neitzel et al. 2000, 2011

Iridescent Shark

(Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

●●

Colotelo et al. 2018

Largemouth bass

(Micropterus salmoides)

●●●

Article in progress (data available in BioPA/HBET)

Pacific lamprey

(Entosphenus tridentatus)

○○

Moursund et al. 2000

Rainbow trout

(Oncorhynchus mykiss)

●●●

Neitzel et al. 2000, 2004

Steelhead

(Oncorhynchus mykiss)

●●●

Neitzel et al. 2000, 2004

●●● = Complete understand of major factors influencing Biological Response

●● = Good understanding of major factors influencing Biological Response

● = Partial understanding major factors influencing Biological Response

Black = Non HydroPASSAGE project

Blue = HydroPASSAGE project

● = Biological Response equation developed

○ = No Biological Response equation developed due to very low susceptibility to barotrauma